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Quartz Industry History

Warren A. Marrison:  The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock; published in 1948

Virgil E. Bottom:  A History of the Quartz Crystal Industry in the USA; published in 1981

The history of the industry is traced from its origin with the discovery of Piezoelectricity by the Curie brothers in 1880-81 to the 1980-81. Special emphasis is placed upon the problems which were encountered and overcome in creating an industry capable of meeting the demands of the Armed Services of the United States and their Allies during WW II.

Marvin E. Frerking:  Fifty Years of Progress in Quartz Crystal Frequency Standards; published in 1996

The progression of developments in Crystal Frequency Standards is traced through fifty years between 1946 to 1996. The article emphasizes the underlying technical changes and innovations that have driven the remarkable progress, while keeping in mind the contribution of the great body of information that was already available at the beginning of the period.  It outlines the progress of ovenized crystal frequency standards from the early vacuum tube days through implementations using transistors, LSI, and hybrid construction.  The progression of TCXO developments is also covered including analog thermistor temperature compensation, digital compensation, and techniques using micro-computers, and self-sensed oscillators.

Robert G. Kinsman: A History of Crystal Filters; published in 1998

This article discusses the progression of these developments in the crystal filter art and the accompanying work on filter crystals which was essential to their success.  A short discussion of measuring and modeling problems is included and the final section covers the applications for crystal filters which drove their technology.